- Geyserworld -
Alan Glennon, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara


Geyser Wire
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WyoFile

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Yellowstone is filled with 'geyser gazers' patiently awaiting eruptions
WyoFile
If we hear Fan and Mortar might go, we're going, Ryan Maurer told me. It was about a mile-and-a-half run from the boardwalk where we stood near Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park to the geysers near Morning Glory Pool. We'd have about 20 minutes ...

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Fox News

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Smackdown: Yellowstone vs. Yosemite—America's best national park
Fox News
America's best national park: Who ya got? Half Dome or Old Faithful? Yellowstone's towering geysers or Yosemite's majestic waterfalls? The bald eagles and buffalo herds in Yellowstone, or the black bear and bighorn sheep of Yosemite? Two of America's ...

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Yellowstone Gate

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Stupid tourist crashes drone into Yellowstone geyser
Boing Boing
This is why we can't have nice quadcopters: "A tourist seeking to take pictures of Yellowstone National Park crashed a camera-equipped drone into its largest hot spring, possibly damaging the prized geothermal feature, a park official said on Wednesday.".
Visitor crashes drone into Yellowstone's largest hot springYellowstone Gate
Drone crashes into Yellowstone National Park's largest hot springRT
Drone crashes into famed hot spring at Yellowstone National ParkChicago Tribune
Bustle
all 174 news articles »

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Geysers just the beginning at Yellowstone
Reading Eagle
Several other geysers are within walking distance, including the tiny Anemone erupting every 10 minutes or so. A few more clusters of geysers and hot springs are a short drive north along Grand Loop. If your timing is right, don't miss the Grand Geyser ...
Yellowstone National Park even better than the hypeNews Sentinel

all 4 news articles »
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Yahoo Travel

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America's Best National Park: Who Ya Got?
Yahoo Travel
Founded: In 1872 Yellowstone became the first national park in the U.S. The creation of the park gained steam with the help of a railroad executive, of all people, who wrote, “Let Congress pass a bill reserving the Great Geyser Basin (Yellowstone) as a ...
Keep our parks out of UN's handsBillings Gazette

all 40 news articles »

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Summer Adventures in Wyoming: Yellowstone National Park, world's largest ...
The Oregonian
Not only does Yellowstone have the world's largest collection of geysers -- the most popular being Old Faithful -- it's also home to Yellowstone Lake. Yellowstone Lake is the biggest high-altitude lake in North America AND on top of Yellowstone Caldera ...

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Geyser to Volcano trail marathon launched
YahooXtra Blogs (blog)
Entrants will pass four lakes, run and walk through stunning native forest, past bubbling mud pools, steaming geysers and private farmland. They will be able to catch hidden views of Lake Rotomahana - the original home of the famous Pink and White ...

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NBC Montana

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2nd tourist cited for flying drone in Yellowstone
NBC Montana
For the second time this summer, Yellowstone National Park rangers have cited a tourist for illegally flying a drone in the park. The Jackson Hole News & Guide reported Friday the man was flying the craft near the Midway Geyser Basin Aug. 19. His name ...
3rd Tourist Cited for Flying Drone in YellowstoneABC News
Yellowstone Enforcing Ban On Unmanned Aircraft OperationKMVT

all 23 news articles »

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Slideshow: Yellowstone Minute Out In It videos
Billings Gazette
Great horned owls live in Alaska, Florida and virtually everywhere in-between, but people rarely get to see them because they mostly hunt at night. This spring, a pair of owls delighted crowds in Mammoth Hot Springs when they established a visible nest ...

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R & D Magazine

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Yellowstone super-eruption would send ash across North America
R & D Magazine
An aerial flight over Yellowstone's Midway Geyser Basin in 2004 shows Grand Prismatic Spring and Excelsior In the unlikely event of a volcanic supereruption at Yellowstone National Park, the northern Rocky Mountains would be blanketed in meters of ash, ...

and more »
What are geysers and why are they so rare?
Last update: 9 August 2008

A geyser is a hot spring that periodically erupts, throwing water into the air. Though that sounds simple, geysers are extremely rare. As of August 2008, the total of active geysers on earth numbered approximately 1000.

Pink Cone Geyser, Yellowstone, photo by Alan Glennon Conditions must be just right for geysers to occur. Three components must be present for geysers to exist: an abundant supply of water, an intense source of heat, and unique plumbing. Water is common in nature, heat can come from volcanic activity, but the plumbing is critical. For water to be thrown into the air, geyser plumbing must be water- and pressure-tight. Geyser scientists and observers have identified the volcanic rock rhyolite as being particularly effective at hosting geysers. Rhyolite is high in silica, which can deposit a water-tight seal along the walls of the geyser plumbing. Most of the geyser fields in the world are found in rhyolite or similar silica-laden rocks (like ignimbrite). The mixture of water, volcanic heat, and plumbing is exceptional at Yellowstone National Park. Over one-half of the world's geysers are located within the park's boundaries.

It is increasingly apparent that geysers must possess a fourth characteristic to exist: remoteness. Within the last fifty years, volcanic heat and abundant water have been increasingly harnessed to turn turbines for electricity production. Geothermal energy can be produced at any site where volcanic heat and water are readily available. Unfortunately, geyser fields are ideal for this type of energy production. Geothermal energy production steals the geysers' water, and destroys geyser activity (for example, Wairakei, New Zealand). A growing threat to geysers stems from mineral extraction. Hot groundwater may precipitate gold or other valuable minerals, and extraction may require removing the geyser plumbing itself. For example, in May 2003, mineral exploration at South Americas second largest geyser field (Puchuldiza, Chile), caused cessation in the fields geysers. Few realize the actual rarity of geysers. As a result, many geyser fields have been destroyed and many others are being threatened.

How do geysers work?

The following is an excerpt from Scott Bryan's GEYSERS OF YELLOWSTONE, 3rd edition, copyright 2001. It is reproduced here for educational purposes. Scott Bryan's book not only describes each Yellowstone geyser in detail, but also includes descriptions of geyser fields worldwide. It is probably the best book on geysers out there. Buy it or check it out!

The hot water, circulating up from great depth, flows into the plumbing system of a geyser. Because this water is many degrees above the boiling point, some of it turns to steam instead of forming liquid pools. Meanwhile, additional, cooler water is flowing into the geyser from the porous rocks nearer the surface. The two waters mix as the plumbing system fills.

Morning Glory Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Photo by Alan Glennon The steam bubbles formed at depth rise and meet the cooler water. At first, they condense there, but as they do they gradually heat the water. Eventually, these steam bubbles rising from deep within the plumbing system manage to heat the surface water until it also reaches the boiling point. Now the geyser begins to function like a pressure cooker. The water within the plumbing system is hotter than boiling, but "stable" because of the pressure exerted by all the water lying above it. (Remember that the boiling point of a liquid is dependent upon the pressure. The boiling point of pure water 212 degrees Farenheit (100 degrees Celsius) at sea level. In Yellowstone the elevation is about 7,500 feet, the pressure is lower, and the boiling point of water is only about 199 degrees Farenheit (93 degrees Celsius).

The filling and heating process continues until the geyser is full or nearly full of water. A very small geyser may take but a few seconds to fill whereas some of the larger geysers take several days. Once the plumbing system is full the geyser is about ready for an eruption. Often forgotten but of extreme importance is the heating that must occur along with the filling. Only if there is an adequate store of heat within the rocks lining the plumbing system can an eruption last for more than a few seconds. Again, each geyser is different from every other. Some are hot enough to erupt before they are completely full and do so without any preliminary indications of an eruption. Others may be completely full well before they are hot enough to erupt and so may overflow quietly for some time before an eruption occurs. But, eventually, the eruption will take place.

Because the water of the entire plumbing system has been heated to boiling, the rising steam bubbles no longer collapse near the surface. Instead, as more very hot water enters the geyser at great depth, even more and larger steam bubbles form and rise toward the surface. At first, they are able to make it all the way to the top of the plumbing system. But a time will come when there are so many steam bubbles that they can no longer simply float upwards. Somewhere they encounter some sort of constriction or bend in the plumbing. To get by they must squirt through the narrow spot. This forces some water ahead of them and up and out of the geyser. This initial loss of water reduces the pressure at depth, lowering the boiling point of water already hot enough to boil. More water boils, forming more steam. Soon there is a virtual explosion as the steam expands to over 1,500 times its original, liquid volume. The boiling rapidly becomes violent and water is ejected so rapidly that it is thrown into the air.

The eruption will continue until either the water is used up or the temperature drops below boiling. Once an eruption has ended. the entire process of filling, heating, and boiling will be repeated, leading to another eruption.

Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone - Alan Glennon 2004

In Depth


To reference this page, use the appropriate variation of the following format:

J. Alan Glennon. (2008) About Geysers, http://www.geyserworld.com, University of California, Santa Barbara, originally posted January 1995, updated August 9, 2008.

T. Scott Bryan (2001) The Geysers of Yellowstone, 3rd edition, University Press of Colorado: Boulder, pp.472.


For more information, contact:
J. Alan Glennon
Department of Geography
University of California
Santa Barbara, California 93106

e-mail: glennon(at)umail.ucsb.edu